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Arabic Numbers

While Arabic letters are written from right-to-left, numbers in Arabic are written from left-to-right.

To convert a year from the Islamic Calendar (AH) to Gregorian (AD) you add 622, to 0.97 times the AH year. Thus 1313 AH is ((1313 * 0.97) + 622) 1895 more or less.

The Ottoman's used a script known as Osmanlica prior to its adoption of modern script in 1923. Osmanlic/Ottoman Turkish was the language of the Ottoman court and government. Documents were issued in it as were books, published/written by members of the government, including civil servants, the military, and the courts. It is similar to the Arabic script and alphabet but includes several Persian letter innovations to reflect certain sounds, like "p", not in the Arabic languages.